Ten Principles of Good Design

Dieter Rams

A photograph of Dieter Rams

Some fundamental reflections on the — all things considered — essence of design which determined me and my fellow designers was summed up in ten simple statements a few years ago. They are helpful a means for orientation and understanding. They are not binding. Good design is in a constant state of redevelopment — just like technology and culture.

Dieter Rams, 1987


Good design is innovative.

The possibilities for innovation are not, ​by any means, exhausted. Technological development is always offering new opportunities for innovative design. ​But innovative design always develops ​in tandem with innovative technology, ​and can never be an end in itself.


Good design makes a product useful.

A product is bought to be used. It has to satisfy certain criteria, not only functional, but also psychological and aesthetic. Good design emphasizes the usefulness of a product whilst disregarding anything that could possibly detract from it.


Good design is aesthetic.

The aesthetic quality of a product is integral to its usefulness because products we use every day affect our person and our well-being. But only well-executed objects can be beautiful.


Good design makes a product understandable.

It clarifies the product’s structure. Better still, it can make the product talk. At best, it is self-explanatory.


Good design is honest.

It does not make a product more innovative, powerful or valuable than it really is. It does not attempt to manipulate the consumer with promises that cannot be kept.


Good design is unobtrusive.

Products fulfilling a purpose are like tools. They are neither decorative objects nor works of art. Their design should therefore be both neutral and restrained, to leave room for the user’s self-expression.


Good design is long-lasting.

It avoids being fashionable and therefore never appears antiquated. Unlike fashionable design, it lasts many years — even in today’s throwaway society.


Good design is thorough down to the last detail.

Nothing must be arbitrary or left to chance. Care and accuracy in the design process show respect towards the consumer.


Good design is environmentally friendly.

Good design makes an important contribution to the preservation of the environment. It conserves resources and minimizes physical and visual pollution throughout the lifecycle of the product.


Good design is as little design as possible.

Less but better — because it concentrates on the essential aspects, and the products are not burdened with inessentials.

Back to purity, back to simplicity!